Species and TPG
Between 1991 and the end of 2020, the Trelissick Park Group, in conjunction with
the City and Regional Councils, have planted just over 92,000 plants in
the park. The species are listed below as well as some comments on our
experience with the species listed.
Growing Pioneer Planting
Ngaio (Myoporum laetum),
wineberry (Aristotelia serrata),
manuka (Leptospermum scoparium),
five-finger (Pseudopanax arboreus),
(Veronica stricta), karamu (Coprosma robusta), kanono (Coprosma
grandifolia), broadleaf (Griselinia
littoralis), mahoe (Melicytus
ramiflorus), kawakawa (Macropiper
excelsum), taupata (Coprosma
akiraho (Oleria paniculata).
When the soil is damp
in the colder months and straight after removal of pest weeds we plant
mixed fast-growing pioneer species, about 0.8 - 1 metre apart. Such
close spacing helps to shade out and suppress subsequent weed
re-growth. It takes 3 - 4 years for this to take effect, when the trees
are up to 2 m tall, so re-visits are required to remove weeds from
around the plants.
Ngaio grows fastest and tends to dominate. It sprawls and we have to
prune sometimes to give neighbours a chance. It is also frost-tender,
especially when young, so we prefer to plant above the frosty valley
floors or at forest margins under the shelter of taller trees.
Wineberry is also a fast grower. Lemonwood seems shallow-rooted, as we
have had several blown over after maturity. Koromiko is a smaller tree
so is better near edges of tracks or streams. Kawakawa prefers
shade/semi-shade. Everything else prefers sun or semi-shade. We found
all these species to be resilient.
Rabbits enjoy the Coprosmas and koromiko, so protectors around those
Toetoe (Austraderia toetoe and fulvida),
cabbage tree (Cordyline
australis), swamp flax (Phormium
tenax) out of flood zone, karamu
Toetoe and cabbage
tree are particularly suited to planting right next to stream banks.
Their tenacious roots make them effective for erosion protection.
Toetoe can grow to 2 - 3 m in diameter, so can overwhelm adjacent
plants. Rabbits like cabbage tree fronds. We avoid flax next to stream
banks - easily bowled over by flood water. Karamu helps stream shading.
Rewarewa (Knightia excelsa),
tawa (Beilschmiedia tawa),
(Metrosideros robusta), rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum), miro (Prumnopitys
ferruginea), matai (Prumnopitys
taxifolia), totara (Podocarpus
kahikatea (Dacrycarpus dacrydioides),
novae-zelandiae), titoki (Alectryon
excelsus), hinau (Elaeocarpus
dentatus), pigeonwood (Hedycarya
We have been
fortunate recipients of these species over the last 24 years, mostly
from the WCC nurseries, with some in earlier days from the F & B
nursery. These have been planted within the fast-growing pioneer
species. An on-going task is to prune the pioneer trees around the
slow-growing large/canopy species, otherwise they get overwhelmed.
Marking the locations of the large/canopy species with stakes helps
discovery within the thickets of weeds later on.
The miro we planted 13 years ago are now over 3 m tall and look
beautiful. Totara are slower, but also do well in the park. Many of our
northern rata were received under 'Project Crimson' - slower growing
and with some losses. The few rimu we have are starting to look
magnificent, though only around 2 to 3 m after 12 years. 30 more were
planted in 2017. Kahikatea grow at
about the same rate. Surplus seed trays of these from WCC have been
pricked out, potted-on and nurtured in our home nursery. This plentiful
supply has allowed us to plant the kahikatea densely (at about 1 to 1.5
m spacing). There are good examples of mature stands of such dense
kahikatea in damp locations throughout the country. The matai grow at
about 1 m per decade, looking scraggly in the process. We have only one
large matai in the park. The pigeonwood prefer sunny locations, the
novae-zelandiae), button fern
kiwikiwi (Blechnum fluviatile),
hen & chicken (Asplenium
bulbiferum), shining spleenwort (Asplenium oblongifolium), gully
(Pneumatopteris pennigera), Lastreopsis glabella, common
(Adiantum cunninghamii), crown
fern (Blechnum discolor),
wheki (Dicksonia squarrosa),
katote (Cyathea smithii),
fibrosa), common shield fern (Polystichum
We received these
ferns from the two South Island nurseries listed below, under GW's
'Take Care' fund and the Honda Tree Fund. Unfortunately, they have
proved 'fickle', with perhaps less than 50% survival rate. Most were
planted on the forest floor, previously inhabited by wandering willie.
We have not been able to identify which ferns are more likely to
Rushes and Sedges
Carex species, rushes and sedges, bush rice grass (Microlaena
avenacea), NZ blueberry (Dianella
nigra), gossamer grass (Anemanthele
lessoniana), poa ancepts, poa cita.
Gossamer grass has
been a great success. In semi-shade areas this flourishes and expands.
A further benefit is that its density overcomes wandering willie. We
lost much of our flax to yellow leaf disease in 2010. Subsequent
plantings are unaffected. We plant flax at least 1.5 m from track edges
to avoid people tripping from fronds. Bush rice grass has done well,
populating forest floor areas after clearance of wandering willie. We
have planted much of the native grasses, rushes and sedges in patches
bordering open grassy areas and near streams, but careful maintenance
is required for 3 - 4 years to prevent pasture grass taking over.
planted in the forks of large trees with limited success.
Nikau (Rhopalostylis sapida),
kowhai (Sophora microphylla),
flax (Phormium cookianum),
tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata),
(Melicope ternata), poataniwha
(Melicope simplex), lancewood
(Pseudopanax crassifolius and ferox),
pate (Schefflera digitata),
(Myrsine australis), black and
white maire (Nestegis cunninghamii
lanceolata), rangiora (Brachyglottis
repanda), whau (Entelea
arborescens), ake-ake (Dodonaea
viscosa), lacebark (Hoheria
kohekohe (Dysoxylum spectabile),
putaputaweta (Carpodetus serratus),
kamahi (Weinmannia racemosa),
kaikomako (Pennantia corymbosa),
perscandens, lacebark (Hoheria
The park lies within
the 'Nikau Belt'. Sadly, there was only one nikau left in the original
forest remnant area, just over 1 m high. In the last decade we have
optimistically planted hundreds in damp areas throughout the park.
Nikau growth rate is 'glacial' though some are now 2 - 3 m tall. Kowhai
is better planted at forest
margins for the sun and floral display. It needs rabbit protection.
Wharangi, poataniwha, pate, kohekohe and putaputaweta were scarce in
the park, so WCC have provided these in the last few years. We planted
the occasional white maire, whau and kamahi. Whau, with its attractive
leaves, is easily killed by frost, so needs a sheltered area above the
valley floor. The park has only two notably large kamahi.
More species information
For more species see the Vascular
Native Plant List via the following
Vascular Native Plant List April
Sources of Native
Plants for Trelissick Park
- Seed gathering (WCC Permit)
- Suburban gardens - must be endemic
- WCC (Berhampore)
- WCC (Otari Wilton's Bush)
- Forest and Bird Nursery
- Project Crimson Trust from Plantwise Nursery
(Lower Hutt) - for northern rata
- Taupo Native Plant Nursery (Wellington seed)
Wairarapa Native Nursery
- Moores Valley Plants
- Kiwi Plants (Stokes Valley)
- Fern Factor NZ (Christchurch)
- Fernz (Westport)
- Manawa Karioi Society nursery.
and below are
pictures of our plantings
Flax = Streamside
Koromiko = Fast Growing Pioneer
Mahoe flowers = Fast Growing Pioneer
Rangiora flowering = Other
Toetoe = Streamside
Coprosma = Streamside
Rimu = Large/Canopy
Triangle = Grasses, Rushes and Sedges
Blechnum fluviatile = Ferns (before planting)
Miro = Large/Canopy
Cabbage tree in bloom = Streamside
not have been done without the help of the WCC and many volunteers -
corporate and especially the regular Trelissick Park Group volunteers.
Some samples below!
larger pictures, click on above thumbnail pictures
Trelissick Park Group